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Posts Tagged ‘case western reserve university’

Watson Goes To Medical School

October 31st, 2012 10:20 admin View Comments

IBM

First time accepted submitter Kwyj1b0 writes “I.B.M’s Watson is headed to the Cleavland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University for training. Clinicians and students will answer and correct Watson’s questions, in an attempt to crowdsource its education. From the article: ‘“Hopefully, we can contribute to the training of this technology,” said Dr. James K. Stoller, chairman of the Education Institute at Cleveland Clinic. The goal, he added, was for Watson to become a “very smart assistant.” Part of Watson’s training will be to feed it test questions from the United States Medical Licensing Exam, which every human student must pass to become a practicing physician. The benefit for Watson should be to have a difficult but measurable set of questions on which to measure the progress of its machine-learning technology.’”

Source: Watson Goes To Medical School

Empathy Represses Analytic Thought, and Vice Versa

October 31st, 2012 10:08 admin View Comments

Science

hessian sends this quote from a Case Western Reserve University news release: “New research shows a simple reason why even the most intelligent, complex brains can be taken by a swindler’s story – one that upon a second look offers clues it was false. When the brain fires up the network of neurons that allows us to empathize, it suppresses the network used for analysis, a pivotal study led by a Case Western Reserve University researcher shows (abstract). … At rest, our brains cycle between the social and analytical networks. But when presented with a task, healthy adults engage the appropriate neural pathway, the researchers found. The study shows for the first time that we have a built-in neural constraint on our ability to be both empathetic and analytic at the same time. The work suggests that established theories about two competing networks within the brain must be revised. More, it provides insights into the operation of a healthy mind versus those of the mentally ill or developmentally disabled.”

Source: Empathy Represses Analytic Thought, and Vice Versa

Researchers Develop Insect Powered Energy Source

January 9th, 2012 01:47 admin View Comments

Biotech

cylonlover writes with this excerpt from an article at Gizmag: “Research into developing insect cyborgs for use as first responders or super stealthy spies has been going on for a while now. Most research has focused on using batteries, tiny solar cells, or piezoelectric generators to harvest kinetic energy from the movement of an insect’s wings to power the electronics attached to the insects. Now a group of researchers at Case Western Reserve University have created a biofuel cell power supply that relies just on the insect’s normal feeding [registration required to download full paper].”

Source: Researchers Develop Insect Powered Energy Source

Electromechanical Switches Could Reduce Future Computers’ Cooling Needs

October 9th, 2010 10:00 admin View Comments

Earthquake Retrofit writes “Science Daily is reporting that researchers at Case Western Reserve University have taken the first step to building a computer capable of operating in extreme heat. Te-Hao Lee, Swarup Bhunia and Mehran Mehregany have made electromechanical switches — building blocks of circuits — that can take twice the heat that would render electronic transistors useless. ‘The group used electron beam lithography and sulfur hexafluoride gas to etch the switches, just a few hundred nanometers in size, out of silicon carbide. The result is a switch that has no discernable leakage and no loss of power in testing at 500 degrees Celsius. A pair of switches were used to make an inverter, which was able to switch on and off 500,000 times per second, performing computation each cycle. The switches, however, began to break down after 2 billion cycles and in a manner the researchers do not yet fully understand. … Whether they can reach the point of competing with faster transistors for office and home and even supercomputing, remains to be seen. The researchers point out that with the ability to handle much higher heat, the need for costly and space-consuming cooling systems would be eliminated.’”

Source: Electromechanical Switches Could Reduce Future Computers’ Cooling Needs

Researchers Use Lasers to Control the Beating of a Heart

August 16th, 2010 08:18 admin View Comments

laser-pacemakerIn early 2010, some scientists offered their predictions for the new decade which this blog covered in the post, “Scientists Predict: The 2010s Will Be Freakin’ Awesome–With Lasers.” In what could be an early sign of that sunny prognostication coming true, researchers have announced that they’ve controlled the beating of an embryonic heart with an infrared laser beam. While the work is in its early stages, researchers say this remarkable advance will help them study heart disease and could one day lead to optical pacemakers.  

 

The embryonic hearts in question came from quail eggs. Each quail embryo was only two or three days old so the heart measured just 2 cubic millimeters in volume; at that stage, the heart is essentially a clump of cells that hasn’t yet developed its four-chambered structure. The pulses of infrared light were delivered by an optical fiber that ended 500 micrometres from the embryo.

Before they switched on the laser, the heart beat once every 1.5 seconds, but firing the laser twice a second quickened the heartbeat to match the laser rate as long as the laser fired…. ”It worked beautifully: the heart rate was in lockstep with the laser pulse rate,” says [study coauthor] Duco Jansen of Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee. [New Scientist]

Several years ago, a different scientific team showed that laser pulses could set the pace of a cluster of heart cells in a petri dish, but the new study, published in Nature Photonics, marks the first time a laser has set the pace of an entire heart. Lead author Michael Jenkins of Case Western Reserve University says the technique will offer a new way to study heart development. 

“We want to know how congenital heart defects form, and how the heart’s rhythms during development affect it later on,” he says. “Having a noninvasive way to modify the heart rate would be useful.” [ScienceNOW]

At the energy level used the laser pulses didn’t appear to damage the cells, but the researchers intend to thoroughly investigate the safety of the process. They’ll also be looking into other details–like how exactly this mechanism works. At the moment, it’s still unclear.  

They suggest that it might create a temperature gradient that can stimulate “action potential in excitable tissues,” as was also proposed in earlier work on clusters of cardiomyocytes. [Scientific American]

 

Image: Salma Shaikhouni

Source: Researchers Use Lasers to Control the Beating of a Heart

Exotic “Electroweak” Star Predicted

April 3rd, 2010 04:50 admin View Comments

astroengine writes “A new type (or phase) of star has been characterized by Case Western Reserve University scientists in a paper submitted to Physical Review Letters. The ‘electroweak’ star is a stellar corpse too massive to be a quark star, yet too light to collapse into a black hole. It crushes and burns the quarks inside, generating an outward radiation pressure that acts against gravity. Interestingly, the interior is predicted to be a ‘Big Bang factory,’ forcing the electromagnetic and weak forces to collapse as one (hence ‘electroweak’) — a condition that hasn’t been seen elsewhere in our universe since moments after the Big Bang.” The article notes that the first calculations on electroweak stars pegged them as an intermediate stage on the way to a black-hole collapse, lasting at most a second. The new calculations suggest that electroweak stars could persist for millions of years.

Source: Exotic “Electroweak” Star Predicted

US DOJ Says Kindle In Classroom Hurts Blind Students

January 13th, 2010 01:20 admin View Comments

angry tapir writes “Three US universities will stop promoting the use of Amazon.com’s Kindle DX e-book reader in classrooms after complaints that the device doesn’t give blind students equal access to information. Settlements with Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Pace University in New York City and Reed College in Portland, Oregon, were announced Wednesday by the US Department of Justice. The National Federation of the Blind and the American Council of the Blind had complained that use of the Kindle devices discriminates against students with vision problems.”

Source: US DOJ Says Kindle In Classroom Hurts Blind Students